NR. 4 – 2010

Rezumate Studii Teologice 2010.4

† DANIEL — Cuvântul lui Dumnezeu transmis prin mass-media

Summary: The word of God conveyed through the mass-media

Proclaiming the word of God is the primordial calling of the Church (cf. Matt 28, 18-20; Acts 1, 8, and so on), its missionary work for the life of the world. Preaching the word of God has a distinct salvific goal: to call human beings towards partaking of the life of the crucified, resurrected and glorified Christ, in order to gain the divine, eternal life and joy. Therefore, in every historical era, dynamic religious communities have been actively involved in knowing and employing the new communication technologies. Fast-paced technical progress of the recent decades has challenged all world’s great religions to attune their methods of conveying religious doctrines and ethical precepts to the new culture, dominated by modern communication means. Hundreds of millions of persons now experience religious faith through the mass-media. With various intensities and accents, contemporary religious world has found in the mass-media new vectors enhancing its missionary activity. The Orthodox Church considers that the new communication means – radio, TV, the Internet, the written press – provide new opportunities for mission, but it also signals the challenges which their wrong use may pose to personal and community life.

In the context of Romania’s social freedom since 1990, the Romanian Orthodox Church has begun to give special attention to conveying the message of faith through the mass-media, in the belief that communicating the word of God by means of modern means boosts and extends ecclesial communion and the missionary work of the Church. Following positive communication experience within several eparchies, the Romanian Patriarchate has, over the recent years, intensified its mission through modern mass-media, employing them not as substitutes for traditional pastoral work – which favors personal, direct contact between priest and community members – but as technical support promoting the liturgical, cultural, catechetical, social and philanthropic life of the Church. On 27 October, 2007 the Basilica Press Centre of the Romanian Patriarchate was established, comprising five departments: Trinitas radio station, Trinitas TV, a three-publication group (the daily newspaper Lumina, the weekly Lumina de Duminică, the monthly Vestitorul Ortodoxiei), the news agency Basilica, and the Press and Communications Office. Financially, Basilica Press Centre is exclusively supported by the Romanian Orthodox Church, with the contribution of eparchies and parishes.

Unlike lay media, the Christian one cultivates and conveys the truth of Christian faith in the context of today’s realities, namely a sanctifying truth; it defends the dignity of the human being, created in the image of God, promotes human freedom and responsibility in the realm of private, family, ecclesial and social life, supports the sanctity of family, friendship and concord, fosters the culture of spiritual beauty. Today we see that the mass-media encouraging selfishness, hatred and violence cause spiritual harm. They debase the human person and life in the family, society and nations.

It is the Church’s duty to proclaim the Word of God to today’s secularized world and cultivate man’s communion with God in order to achieve salvation. The light imparted by the Church through the mass-media is rooted in the Gospels, the liturgical life, the mystical lives of saints as well as Christians’ charity or social work. This light is a foretaste of the eternal light in the Kingdom of God. Thus, the Word of God brings in communion with Him all those who receive it as the Word of everlasting life.


Iuliana CONOVICI — Tradition, Community and Authority on the Romanian “Orthodox Web”

Rezumat: Tradiție, comunitate și autoritate pe „Internetul ortodox” românesc

În comunitatea de cercetare internațională, cercetarea fenomenelor sociale de pe Internet se conturează din ce în ce mai clar ca un subdomeniu specific de cercetare în științele sociale – inclusiv în domeniul studiului religiei. Prezența ortodoxă românească pe internet rămâne un teritoriu încă neexplorat sistematic de cercetătorii fenomenului religios, fie ei specialiști în științe sociale sau teologi.

„Internetul ortodox” românesc este un fenomen care își are începuturile la jumătatea anilor ’90 și care a cunoscut o expansiune mereu accelerată în ultimii ani, mai ales odată cu dezvoltarea unor programe electronice accesibile publicului cu minime abilități tehnice, precum blogurile și sistemele de tip wiki. Acestea pot avea pe de o parte o funcție catehetică și misionară, facilitând accesul celor interesați la resurse care să răspundă nevoilor și căutărilor spirituale ale utilizatorilor de Internet (publicarea mai multor texte fundamentale ale Tradiției ortodoxe mai vechi, scrieri și mărturii ale unor trăitori ortodocși contemporani, resurse iconografice și de muzică sacră etc., știri și informații de interes pentru lumea ortodoxă), acestea au creat treptat și posibilitatea articulării unor comunități online în jurul interesului pentru ortodoxie.

Accesibilitatea resurselor, facilitatea publicării online și anonimitatea relativă a participanților la comunitățile online au ridicat imediat problema insuficienței articulării comunităților virtuale, a caracterului lor „descărnat”, depersonalizat, dar și – mai important – problema modului de transmitere a Tradiției ortodoxe prin intermediul Internetului, cu atât mai mult cu cât Internetul însuși oferă doar criterii de selecție cantitative și de vizibilitate a informației, dar nu și de calitate sau credibilitate a acesteia. Așadar, în ce măsură prezența ortodoxă pe Internet permite o transmitere unitară și bisericește validă a Tradiției?

Analiza terenului de cercetare arată că, dacă reputata „blogosferă ortodoxă”, dar și spațiul grupurilor de discuții se arată ca fiind incontrolabile din punctul de vedere al conținutului, nu este mai puțin adevărat că ierarhia tradițională a Bisericii se reproduce în bună parte și spațiul internetului. Ortodocșii online sunt preoți, monahi, dar mai ales laici (între care un număr consistent de studenți sau absolvenți de Teologie) și de cele mai multe ori sunt persoane pentru care trăirea credinței ortodoxe nu este doar reflexul tradiției ancestrale, ci reprezintă o cale asumată prin alegere personală, ilustrată prin entuziasm și disponibilitatea misionară.

Se poate constata însă că (în afara câtorva cazuri extreme care, deși vizibile, rămân izolate) prezența masivă și vocală a laicilor ortodocși în cadrul comunităților online nu împiedică reproducerea în spațiul online a autorităților tradiționale din Biserica Ortodoxă. Astfel, mare parte a internauților ortodocși activi online se revendică frecvent de la autoritatea unor duhovnici – giranți și implicit garanți ai activităților online ale acestora, de la autoritatea marilor părinți spirituali sau (mai rar, este drept), de la binecuvântarea și autoritatea episcopală. Rolul preoților de îndrumători ai comunităților ortodoxe se reproduce și online, aceștia fiind recunoscuți de către membrii comunităților ortodoxe online ca surse ale Tradiției autorizate. Contestarea autorității sau a deciziilor individuale ori colegiale ale unor ierarhi sau preoți, manifestă uneori în agora online, nu este direct legată de spațiul Internetului și nu ia naștere acolo. Ea este expresia diversității fertile de opinii și interpretări teologice preexistente în cadrul Bisericii Ortodoxe, a căror manifestare în spațiul Internetului tinde să le exacerbeze prin simplul fapt că le face vizibile, dar se poate dovedi și fertilă. Diversitatea punctelor de vedere asupra aceleiași Tradiții ortodoxe vădită pe site-urile și în comunitățile ortodoxe online semnalează participanților nevoia învățării și exercitării permanente a virtuții discernământului.


Pr. Nicolae DASCĂLU — Comunicatorul creștin și vocația lui de a fi „sarea pământului”

Summary: The Christian communicator and his calling to be “the salt of the earth”

Technological developments in the realm of communication create new ways of expression through the mass-media. The role of professional communicators also gains more importance in the relationship with the audience and the dynamics of today’s society. Mass-media communicators, be they Christians or non-Christians, are the new social elite, due to their engagement with the activity of public information and exertion of the freedom of expression, guaranteed by democratic systems.

The liability for journalistic practice has passed from the realm of law to the freely accepted principles of professional deontology. The codes of journalistic deontology contain more or less detalied principles of professional ethics concerning: the search of truth and and its presentation, journalistic independence, journalistic responsibility. Breaching these principles can only result in the moral penalty from the audiences and the lack of credibility of the media institution.

As the workspace of the mass media is people’s daily life, ethical principles interact with social ethics and the spirituality of various persons and communities. Christian journalists, either in the service of the Churches they belong to, or working for lay press institutions, join professional responsibility and ecclesial responsibility. Therefore, the truths conveyed to people through the mass-media are interpreted and communicated in the light of the Truth, Who is Christ, “the Way, the Truth and the Life” (John 14, 6).

A Christian spirituality of communication is not only possible but necessary for today’s media universe. The relationship between Christian faith and carrying out a professional activity in the realm of communication through the mass-media can be regarded in a twofold perspective: on the one hand, faith enlightens and renders journalists’ work meaningful; on the other hand, professional experience substantiates the active faith. The ideal image of the Christian communicator as a media missionary dynamically emerges by joining professional skills and Christian virtues at work: mature faith, sound culture, dynamic communicability professionaly cultivated, missionary conscience, ecclesial responsibility, inner peace and enjoying one’s service, discernment, respect and patience with others.

Media apostleship thus professionally illustrates the Gospel’s words, urging us to be “the salt of the earth” and “the light of the world” (Matt 5, 13-14).


Pr. Marius Daniel CIOBOTĂ — Dimensiunea interpersonală a comunicării omiletice

Summary: The Interpersonal Dimension of Homiletic Communication

Due to its complexity and manifold manifestations, interpersonal communication is the paradigm of all other communication forms. Theoreticians have defined six main objectives evincing this character: inner knowledge (self-knowledge); knowledge of the outside world; establishing and maintaining significant relationships with other persons; persuading the interlocutor – that is, influencing and changing one’s opinions, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour; assisting other persons; play or entertainment. Unlike the impersonal relationships we establish with our fellow people under various circumstances, interpersonal communication depends on our awareness of psychological data concerning the interlocutors, which allow us to anticipate and interprete their attitudes correctly, otherwise the respective interaction remains incipient and shallow. These benefits of interpersonal knowledge entail individual behavioural rules, determined by one’s familiarity with the interlocutor’s peculiarities. Social expertise demonstrates that any interhuman relationship begins with impersonal relationships which progressively become interpersonal.

Consequently, beside the classical elements of communication theory (sender, message, receiver, channel, code or language), the realm of interpersonal communication gives significant weight to dynamic concepts such as: perception, feedback, auto-feedback, affectivity, interpersonal knowledge, empathy, subjectivity, communication or pragmatic skills, reciprocity, context or communication situation, psychological relationship (communication contact), non-verbal behaviour, effects, and so on. From an axiological standpoint, these convergent factors substantiate the highest communication form in the social universe. An ample interpersonal process takes place between the Christian preacher and the receivers of his homily. Beyond the strictly linguistic level of the sermon, between the preacher and his audience, an intense communication relationship is established. Thousands of invisible bonds – impressions, emotions, perceptions, reactions, mutual responses, etc. – connect the two poles of homiletic communication, involving them in a deep meta-communicational experience.

By virtue of the observations concerning the analogical level of communication, one of the major objectives of contemporary homiletics is better knowledge of the receiver. From this standpoint, awareness of the perceptive phenomenon occurring during the sermon, against the background of essential subjectivity, may determine a new approach on homiletic techniques, with a view to reaching out to the audience. Research into interactional psychology directs the homiletic discourse towards stressing the circumstantial and affective element. By emphasizing the paradigmatic value of interpersonal communication, we have avoided deeming the preacher as a mere sender, and audience as mere collective receiver, with the message as mere religious information, which would have resulted in a reductionist view. Both the deliverer and the receivers of the Christian message establish a much more complex relationship. Despite being a one-way verbal expression, the sermon has a dialogical character, especially at the inner psychological-emotional level. For this reason, we deemed more appropriate to designate it as homiletic communication, intending to emphasize (not only terminologically) the transactional, deeply interactive function of the sermon.


Pr. Iulian NISTEA — Internetul: tendințe și pastorație

Summary: The Internet: Trends and Pastoral Work

Internet’s world, like any other “worlds” or “media,” needs Christianity, just as Orthodox Christianity cannot ignore the Internet. Despised by Orthodox spiritual circles, long deemed as a mere virtual escape, unreal and illusory, the fast-expanding Internet is instrumental to coherent pastoral activity, fitted for the cyberspace. However, this presence of Christianity in the world of the Internet is not a random one, but it is governed by Christian pastoral principles able to lend coherence and consistency to the Christian mission.

Developing an Orthodox pastoral activity of the cyberspace requires updating and attuning the Orthodox anthropology at large, and the spiritual, philocalic tradition in particular, to the “Internet world.” It is a new “inculturation,” a new substantiation of the Christian message, this time not within the “new world” of a novel culture or civilization, but in the “Internet world,” subsumed by all others. In order to carry out pastoral activity via the Internet, one must know and comprehend the reasons for its presence in the cyberspace, the psychological peculiarities of the individual within this realm, the cyber-relationships and the various psychological dynamics of groups within the cyberspace. Experts in cyber-psychology are invited by the Church to answer all these questions.

Therefore, pastoral work carried out via Internet necessitates a traditional, however inculturated anthropological view, manifest in a specific environment, as well as a pastoral theology attuned to the Internet by taking into account the specificity of people’s presence and relation building in the virtual realm. A coherent structuring of pastoral activity via Internet must also imply Christian research into the psychology of employing it and relating through it, and the concrete consequences on the users of technological innovation in this realm. These studies should result in guides providing explanations and directions for all those who undertake missionary work via the Internet, for parents, children and all Christians in general.


Maria ALUAȘ — Radioul ca mijloc de comunicare a mesajului evanghelic

Summary: The radio as a means of conveying the evangelical message

The present study describes the peculiarities and complexity of radio communication, especially the characteristic elements of a Christian radio station. The study addresses in turn the specificity and particularities of radio communication, as well as the editorial lines of European Christian radio stations, mainly those pertaining to the Romanian Orthodox Church.

This research has been carried out starting from a theoretical analysis of radio communication, presenting the landmarks in the history of radio, a history of Romanian radio, then describing representative Christian radio stations in Europe and the European Conference of Christian Radio Stations (CERF).

Further on, it presents the six radio stations of the Romanian Orthodox Church: Trinitas (1998), Renasterea (1999), Reîntregirea (2001), Ortodoxia (2003), Invierea (2004), Dobrogea (2005) and Lumina (2005). The final part of the study defines the “editorial line” concept and provides a few examples of editorial lines of representative European Christian radio stations. According to their character, they are called: pious, identitary and frontier.

General, commercial or niche radio stations? What types of formats are appropriate for conveying the Christian message on radio? Which are the adequate editorial lines for this goal? In order to be efficient, radio communication with Christian contents must comply with mediatic rules, without impoverishing the complexity of the evangelical message. Not a very easy task, since radio is among the proximity media, intended to develop communion through communication and render indispensable services to our society, in its search for meaning and identity.


Pr. Nicolae DINU — Reflectarea evenimentului religios în edițiile on-line ale presei laice și bisericești

Summary: Religious events covered by on-line lay and church press

Communication is a fundamental human activity, conveying symbols and messages that are essential for interpersonal relationships. Mass-media are not mere tools intended to convey and highlight messages, but they are also deeply involved in the communication process. Their goal is to substantiate the force of the communicated contents – the word and its culturalizing character. Virtual space and the expanding media sector have prompted a reconsideration of the attitude towards traditional media, on-line journalism determining the emergence of alternative ways of disseminating information, as well as a more dynamic relationship between journalists and their readership. The success of the Internet has also changed the way in which audiences perceive the news and interact with them. In order to inform the public correctly, a journalist must understand the context determining the meaning of a particular event, a context which may be a religious one.

The present study aims to highlight the construct of the religious reality by lay on-line press, versus church press, as well as the limitations of both approaches. It is a relevant issue since it addresses the informational value of news, as well as the importance of the religious realm to the readership. The study starts from the paradigm provided by the ritual pattern of communication, stressing the prevalence of interpersonal relation and shared emotions, over the mere conveyance of information. People use ritual communication in order to share, participate and be in communion with each other, while the world becomes a symbolical framework governing behaviours. Mass-media amplify the ritual manifestation elements, lending them greater symbolical force and social relevance. In this context, religious journalism is less about conveying information, and more about partaking of a religious view on the world, inviting the reader to assume a role within this world. The Christian feast, as a sacred time, determines a change in human behaviour, while the Church – a sacred space, gives new significance to time, which becomes sanctified, a time of salvation.

Starting from two research hypotheses, the analysis comprises two parts, a quantity analysis revealing the visibility and coverage of Orthodox religious events by on-line issues of the main quality Romanian lay newspapers – Adevărul, Evenimentul Zilei, Gândul, or church publications – Lumina newspaper, as well as a quality analysis of the journalistic profile rendered by the media coverage of this event. The study addresses the coverage of the feast of St. Demetrius the New, the patron saint of Bucharest, between 23-28 October 2009 and 23-29 October 2010. It approaches on-line news and articles, as well as the relationship between the monthly average number of readers of printed newspapers, versus the average number of sole customers of on-line editions of the same newspapers; the survey’s data have been taken from the site of the Romanian Audit Bureau of Circulation (BRATBiroul Roman de Audit al Tirajelor).

The analysis of religious events coverage in Romanian press evinces a number of specific trends: in the articles belonging to the on-line issues of the most widely read quality newspapers in Romania, the religious event is downplayed and regarded as banal occurrence; church mass-media still tends to produce events instead of reporting them, in its endeavour to maintain itself on a competitive market, alongside lay press. The results of this survey prove that, despite being promoted by both lay and church mass-media, the religious event is a fleeting presence, of no long-term interest to the readership, and fails to determine reconfiguration of either the media or the public agenda.


Petru Cristian STOIAN — Predicarea eficientă. tehnici pentru depășirea „rezistenței la persuasiune” a auditoriului

Summary: “The resistance to persuasion”. Techniques to overcome “the resistance to persuasion”

Recent Psychology studies have revealed a very important phenomenon in the delivery of an effective or persuasive sermon, i.e. “the resistance to persuasion”. This phenomenon is an instinctive gesture that every person makes whenever he or she feels that he or she is about to be persuaded. The main cause of this reaction lies in the preservation instinct. Nevertheless, resistance to persuasion can be overcome by applying certain distraction techniques, presented below:

– The sense of humour was also used by our Saviour when he ironically said about the Pharisees that they “filter out a gnat, yet swallow a camel“ (Mt 23, 23-24). Apart from irony, the specialists also recommend the use of good quality humour. This should support the Evangelic message and not just be a funny moment when the situation seems too serious. To be specific, humour can be triggered with the use of parables or anecdotes, of self-irony, or by speculating certain moments in the sermon – for example, the whimper of a child can be welcome with an ironic remark like “isn’t he eager to listen?”.

– The labelling technique, or complimenting the audience, was also used in the past by Christian orators; for example St John Chrisostome names the newly baptised “beautiful sprouts of the Church, […] spiritual flowers, […] Christ’s soldiers!”. Furthermore, recent communication studies prove once more its effectiveness. Psychologists have emphasized the fact that behind labelling lies the principle of liking, as it is generally friends or people who like each other that pay compliments to one another. But what is even more interesting is the fact that when you like a person you have a positive reaction to any potential requirement from that person. Most of the times, the labelling during a sermon is followed by the humbling of the preacher – for example: “but because the great gifts of the Spirit belong to great people, I am not worthy to benefit from such gifts”.

– Charismatic terms make reference to words like health, comfort, value, love etc., considered by sociologists as “catchy” words. For a sermon, such charismatic terms could be: healing or being cured, peace (of the soul), forgiveness, hope, success, courage, love etc. Effective communication inevitably makes use of certain expressions or persuasive patterns, such as: “Imagine what it would be like to leave all your cares in God’s hands”, or: “I have no intention of telling you to give up this sinful habit, but…”. The creation of images through words is aimed at stimulating the audience’s imagination, by using a more attractive description and a sensorial vocabulary. As Jerry Vinnes, the American preacher, plastically put it, “The best orator is the one who can turn the ear into an eye”.

– An honest and open attitude of the preacher, using a personal testimony. This technique refers mainly to expressing certain feelings that the priest-preacher encounters, or to bringing a personal testimony to the attention of the faithful. Certainly, these must support the theme of the sermon. For example, Saint Augustine confessed the following in a sermon: “I cannot express what I feel with my soul and the joy of my heart cannot be uttered by my tongue.” In modern communication, personal testimony is seen as an “intimate disclosure” that might break the resistance to persuasion, when it fulfils a few minimum conditions: it doesn’t go past common sense, and it is being said as a personal story.

– The introduction of the preacher by a person with authority. This method springs from the fact that many communication studies have proved that praise coming from a person who is not directly involved in the communication act (a third party), can create a psychological advantage for the person who is about to speak. For example, an American preacher has been introduced like this: “Today we have here with us a person who will change our lives. He will give us hope, a new personal respect and the power to live a dynamic life […]. Meeting this Person is as if the rivers of our lives would come together and flow in the same direction. You will experience freedom, joy and enthusiasm in your lives.” Then, the woman who was making the introduction stopped, smiled and said: “The name of this Person is Jesus Christ, and here is a certain Lloyd Ogilvie who will tell us about Him”.


Paul SILADI — Fundamentarea teoretică și idealurile presei lutherane conform Publizistischer Gesamtplan der Evangelischen Kirche in Deuschland (1979)

Summary: Theoretical Fundamentation and Ideals of German Lutheran Press acccording to Publizistischer Gesamtplan der Evangelischen Kirche in Deuschland

In Germany the Lutheran press has a long tradition, which made it possible for the Lutheran Church to set down a complete and complex vision of the mission of ecclesiastical press in 1979. The article begins with a contextualisation of why such a topic would be relevant for the Romanian milieu, followed by a presentation of the main sources used – both documents of the Lutheran Church and academic studies. In view of getting the reader acquainted with the Lutheran press we are presented with a short history of this field, from the 19th century on. The central section of the article deals with the role and the necessity of ecclesiastical press, as stipulated in the 1979 document, Publizistischer Gesamtplan der Evangelischen Kirche in Deuschland. According to it the Church is a part of the public space and in order to manifest itself within it, it needs the press to make its voice heard. This occurs following a set of criteria which are expounded in their turn.

The conclusions of the study reassert the necessity of churchly press, while simultaneously stressing the need for a constant reflection on this activity so that the conformism to social tendencies could be avoided, along with the devaluation of the message due to insufficient or inappropriately used means of communication.

Acest site folosește cookie-uri pentru a îmbunătăți navigarea.